Christopher van der Krogt does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. Republish our articles for free, online or in print, under Creative Commons licence. Like pre-modern scholars of law and ethics, these books assume heteronormativity.
As a concept, homosexuality is relatively recent, even if there is plenty of evidence for homoerotic pleasure in the past — albeit illicit in religious terms.
Scriptures and later writers usually referred only to particular sexual acts and did not raise the issue of personal sexual orientation. For religious conservatives, though, both Muslim and Christian, the occasional derogatory reference to same-sex acts is enough to Islam accepting homosexuality and christianity their inherent sinfulness in all circumstances.
More liberal interpreters point to broader ethical Islam accepting homosexuality and christianity such as compassion and empathy. They argue that the condemnations of scripture do not apply to committed relationships founded on love. Such a perspective, however, is inevitably more common among believers concerned with human rights, influenced by gender theory, and trained in contextual and holistic methods of interpretation. The possibility that one party has been coerced is not discussed: However, the offence seems to be no worse than other capital crimes mentioned in the same context, such as adultery and incest.
Paul evidently regarded the prohibition of sexual acts between men or between women as violations of natural law known even to non-Jews — at least if their minds were not clouded by idolatry Romans 1: He seems to have reflected contemporary views that men should be sexually assertive and women passive, and that sexual activity must "Islam accepting homosexuality and christianity" at least potentially procreative.
For Jews, Christians, and Muslims alike, the story of Sodom is central to the traditional condemnation of male homosexuality. As recounted in Genesis 19, however, this is not a story about love or consensual sex between men: Perhaps he considers the rape of his daughters a lesser evil than the rape of his guests. The fact that the guests are male is not emphasised.
After the visitors angels in human form rescue Lot and his family, God rains down fire and brimstone upon Sodom, Gomorrah, and other cities nearby. When the wickedness of Sodom is recalled in other parts of the Bible, homosexuality is not mentioned. Yet, despite this broader context, the story was often interpreted primarily as a condemnation homosexual activity in any form.
The Arabic term for homosexual anal intercourse, liwatcomes from his name rather as English derived the term sodomy from the name of the town. As in Genesis, Lut seems to argue with the men of Sodom over the relative propriety of abusing his daughters or his guests More often, though, the emphasis is on his condemnation of lusting after men instead of women 7: In the Qur'an, Lut says:.
These led in turn to inhospitality and the rape of male visitors. Nevertheless, the Hadith do unequivocally condemn male homosexual acts. Yet, the Prophet is supposed to have declared that both the active and the passive partner be subject to the same penalty as for zina illicit heterosexual sex, usually adulterynamely execution by stoning.
The Prophet peace be upon him said: A few hadith warn women against seeing or touching each other when naked. Traditional Islamic jurisprudence assumed strict gender roles. Marriage was understood in hierarchical terms, but although a man could have sexual relations with female slaves, he did not have the same rights over male slaves. Prescribed penalties for homosexual acts varied according to different schools and individual scholars. In any case, it was difficult to attain the required level of eye-witness testimony.
In practice, homosexual encounters, including with young male prostitutes, seem to have been quite common in Islamic societies. They were no more or less a cause for moralistic concern than other forms of illicit sex. Without actually endorsing homosexuality, some Muslims in Western societies have recognised a parallel between the religious acceptance they demand and the acceptance demanded by gays and lesbians.
Some, such as Cambridge philosopher Abdal Hakim Murad Timothy Winterhave accepted that a homosexual orientation may be innate but say that does not make homosexual sex permissible. Traditionally, if sins can Islam accepting homosexuality and christianity forgiven when repented, declaring forbidden acts not to be sinful has been regarded as heresy or even apostasy.
Commentators such as Mehdi Hasanafter wrestling thoughtfully with the issues, have concluded that while they do not approve of homosexual acts, they cannot condone homophobia.
Muslims and others have to respect each other, which includes accepting that the law permits gay marriage. For Muslims generally, as for conservative Christians, homosexual acts are sinful.
It is difficult to be openly gay or lesbian in predominantly Islamic Islam accepting homosexuality and christianity, but in the West, there are even a few gay imams. There are also support groups for gay and lesbian Muslims. Writers such as Scott Kugle Siraj Islam accepting homosexuality and christianity try to reconcile Islamic identity with alternative sexual orientations.
The latter need not be short-term and may offer an alternative framework for co-habitation without formal marriage. Christian gays and lesbians have had to work hard for a measure of recognition among fellow-believers; their Muslim counterparts are just beginning that struggle.
Glimpses on Greek migrants in Edinburgh photo exhibition — Edinburgh, Midlothian. Available editions United Kingdom. Peter Paul Rubens, Lot and his family escaping from the doomed city guided by an angel, circa Christopher van der KrogtMassey University. Homosexuality in the Bible Leviticus Sodom and sodomy Lot fleeing with his family, by Peter Paul Rubens, In the Qur'an, Lut says: Indeed, you approach men with desire, instead of women.