Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. This exciting challenge was approved for a very busy year of activities: Having been identified as the newest and most burgeoning national member, with 15 member universities and polytechnics in such a small country, CercleS was keen to give ReCLes. The opportunity to meet with other researchers is always met with zeal although this time the response was even greater than we had hoped.
These proceedings comprise 20 papers based on presentations and keynote addresses. The editors kindly thank the keynote speakers and the other authors who chose to write full papers. We hope these proceedings inspire further research and interest in the areas that we hold so dear. Originated and supported by European policies on language, CLIL would not be growing and Livro o carteiro chegou online dating as it is now had it not been for a number of factors anticipating and preparing the ground for its successful expansion both in and outside the European continent.
These factors comprise, on the one hand, global processes affecting theoretical, social and educational developments while, at the same time, involving aspects relating local situations or specific contexts.
One such specific context, Spain, is analysed here. Content and Language Integrated Learning CLILBilingual Education, Multilingualism in Europe Introduction In the last two decades, Europe has seen the rise of new bilingual experiences designated under the umbrella term of Content and Language Integrated Learning CLILusually presented as the contribution of the old continent to bilingual education "Livro o carteiro chegou online dating" as the European model for bilingual education, even Livro o carteiro chegou online dating some researchers cf.
As shown in the Eurydice reports, ever since the European Commission passed the Action Plan for Language Learning in Barcelona inthe number of schools and countries where CLIL is being implemented has not ceased to grow and there are more and more projects involving CLIL practitioners from all around Europe.
Only in the last couple of years, we have seen, to mention but some important landmarks, the publication of a book by a major publisher Llinares et al. In a way, it could be said that CLIL has come of age, that it has become a success story that has developed in a relatively short period.
It goes without saying that there is clearly a relevant role for the European policies, first developed by the Council of Europe, and then implemented at different times by the Commission. However, given the voluntary and advisory nature of these policies for the individual member states, it stands to reason that there must have been other factors. In my view, these other factors can be classified in two groups. On the one hand, we have factors that are more global in nature and more related to the theoretical foundations of CLIL or related to the social context.
On the other hand, this global explanation is complemented by more local factors which may be ascribed to the particular situation of the specific country where CLIL programmes have been implemented. In the present article, I will attempt to describe these two areas by focussing first on the general factors that made it possible for CLIL to be accepted as an educational option in Europe and then by explaining the particular circumstances facilitating its spread in Spain.
Global factors When considering CLIL, one of the main traits that stands out is the diversity of angles that can be adopted, which comes as no surprise given the multi-faceted nature of everything related to the school experience. A look at the Spanish case 3 these authors and elsewhere Cenoz or CoyleI advocate that the perspective that best encompasses CLIL goals is educational, as the features that best define CLIL are precisely related to that school context where it materializes.
In this article, these areas will be analysed under the following headings: The theoretical shift The enforcement of the European bilingual experiences known as CLIL was made possible by a shift, not only in one but in a whole range of disciplines, which simultaneously prepared the ground for all agents involved — teachers, policy makers, parents, etc. This wide range of subjects share a common interest in human cognition and include disciplines such as Philosophy — especially as connected with language —, or Psychology and Neuroscience, which deal with topics such Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition SLA.
Obviously, as a field far removed from immediate or practical concerns, one would not expect Philosophy to be in any way related to the evolution of bilingual education experiences. However, the linguistic turn in philosophy Rortywhich is, in my opinion, at the heart of the social constructivist approach to education, reviewed below, points to a fact that has become generally accepted, i. Thus, incorporating additional languages to "Livro o carteiro chegou online dating" linguistic repertoire of European citizens, which is the ultimate aim of CLIL, would result from an epistemological need to Livro o carteiro chegou online dating access to knowledge from perspectives other than the one provided by your first language.
The cultural nature of the European project becomes thus part of the educational process. More directly influential on CLIL is the body of research on bilingualism, an area clearly established within the field of Psycholinguistics.
In my opinion, it would not have been possible to advance in the implementation of bilingual programmes such as CLIL if the theoretical outlook on bilingualism had not radically changed in the last 30 years or so.
In its place, the more experimentally-oriented research on bilingualism cf. Bialystok for a review has been able to depict a more objective image, comprising positive elements such as: Rather, the definition used is necessarily variable and refers to someone who uses two languages very often or, as Bialystok From its traditional emphasis on the use of methods, the language teaching profession has begun, encouraged by figures such as Stephen Krashen, to pay more attention to the principles underlying the acquisition process and to the host of factors which the ever-increasing SLA literature has stressed as being part of that process.
Speaking in terms of a usage-based approach to language learning, CLIL would mean paying attention to two of the mechanisms with a major role: Social and political forces The propaedeutic function of the Cognitive Sciences described above is not sufficient to explain why typically monolingual educational systems, which had previously only incorporated some classes in one or two different foreign languages FLsaccepted giving them a new leading role, as has happened in CLIL.
For such an important decision to be accepted by the general public, some social and political forces must have also prepared the ground. The major social force influencing educational agents parents, teachers, policy makers, etc. Students need FL skills Livro o carteiro chegou online dating they want to participate in areas which are so characteristic of the present time such as information technologies, mass media and the economy cf. The European Union has been only too aware of this situation and has promoted a labour "Livro o carteiro chegou online dating" with practical language and intercultural skills, which are crucial for economic growth and better jobs, enabling European companies to compete effectively in the global marketplace.
For European policy makers, CLIL is an essential part of this strategy as it provides for the preparation of this labour force from the very beginning. Another major force is the societal and political reality of Europe which, in spite of its ups and downs, has contributed to the "Livro o carteiro chegou online dating" that multilingualism as an essential skill for a European citizenship.
Finally, it also seems undeniable that, in spite of European efforts to promote multilingualism, the rise of English to the status of a lingua franca or an international language has had a major role in the consolidation of CLIL throughout Europe.
Educational bases In educational terms, the presence of CLIL can only be understood under a re- evaluation of the importance of language in the school.
Nowhere is this new assessment better expressed than in the book by Mary Schleppegrell entitled The Language of Schooling, in which she states that [e]xploring the features of language used in schooling highlights the relationship between language and learning in ways that reveal the close connection between language and content in all school subjects.
Knowing how knowledge is construed in language can make the relationship between language and learning a focus of attention in schools and help teachers… At the same time making explicit the way the curriculum is construed in language can also open up the curriculum to challenge or change by those who recognize its limitations or constraints.
For this social-constructionist view, the learning of new knowledge in a school context not only results from assimilating existing information, usually in the form of memorisation but also basically involves the construction by a community, in the case of the education context — a classroom, of the models that explain the world around. A look at the Spanish case 7 It is this shift from mere transmission of knowledge to the emergence of meaning in the classroom, a typical feature of constructivism, which creates Livro o carteiro chegou online dating conditions for the appearance of CLIL with its emphasis on scaffolding Coyle Thus, the progressive change in the dynamics of the classroom that is happening in the schools of the 21st century, where the role of the teacher gradually turns from the expert or authority figure into a facilitator or negotiator of meaning, is clearly paving the way for a CLIL methodology where the teacher, typically a non-native speaker, needs to adopt a new function in order to be able to cope with the requirements of teaching in a foreign language, among other aspects.
At the same time, the more active role of the students is also more congruent with the activities that are typical in a CLIL class.
In the more specific territory of the language teaching profession, some of these methodological changes in the school have been coincident with the boom of the Communicative Language Teaching CLT approach and with some related developments such as the task-based curriculum or the Language for Specific Purposes movement. This meant greater attention to meaning and authentic language use appropriate to the different situations in which the target language was used as a means to learn or to communicate.
The result has been a continuum varying from strictly language-driven approaches to more content-driven ones cf. Metin Cenoz et al. In this section I will concentrate on some the factors that may have had an influence in the context of Spain by focussing on two main aspects: Thus, the same student when in contact with a group of academically bright colleagues will tend to Livro o carteiro chegou online dating better than when in contact with a group of low achievers.
Its importance in Spanish CLIL has to do with the voluntary nature of bilingual experiences in this country since parents are free to enrol their children in the programmes offered by schools. As a consequence, CLIL groups usually perform better and create the conditions for academic levels to be higher because both teachers and students realize the new context.
The second related circumstance promoting the presence of CLIL in Spain is linked Livro o carteiro chegou online dating the poor results in foreign language learning in this country. As a consequence, there is a hard felt need, especially by parents from higher socio-cultural backgrounds, to overcome this situation and to offer their children additional opportunities to reach a FL level above the one the educational system seems to be providing. By offering more contact with the FL and therefore increasing the amount of input, CLIL seems to be a reasonable option even at the expense of having to lower the standards in content subjects.
Conclusion In this paper, I have outlined some of the trends that may help to understand why CLIL has become a success story. A look at the Spanish case 9 outcome of theoretical developments, emerging social contexts and new educational approaches that created the conditions for its arrival and success. Error analysis of written production. Vienna English Working Papers 3.
Evaluation of bilingual secondary education in The Netherlands: English Educational Research and Evaluation 12 1. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Cognitive development in bilingual children. Language and Cognition 12 1.