Sexual dysfunction SDas a diabetes mellitus DM -related complication, is common among patients having diabetes. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence of SD in Saudi women with type 2 DM and to determine whether age, glycemic control, and obesity are associated with SD or not.
A total of Saudi women with type 2 diabetes took part in this cross-sectional study and filled out the Female Sexual Function Index through "Sexual medicine in saudi arabia" fill-coded questionnaire in primary care clinics in King Khalid University Hospital, in the period between January and May The level of glycosylated hemoglobin and the body mass index were assessed to evaluate the DM control status and obesity among the patients.
SD was reported by Glycemic control did not show a significant association with SD. The obesity factor showed a slight increase in SD by weight, but it was not statistically significant. The prevalence of SD among the Saudi women having type 2 diabetes is high and increases with age. No association was found between SD and glycemic control. On the other end of the scale, the association of SD with women has not yet been well investigated in our community.
Women are very self-aware when talking about sex in a professional setting.
As sexual health is a vital issue and patients may sometimes be embarrassed to inform their physicians about their complaints, this study attempted to add to the literature by filling this gap. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of SD in Saudi women diagnosed with type 2 DM and whether age of patients, glycemic control, duration of DM, and obesity are associated with SD or not.
A cross-sectional survey was used in this study. A total of Saudi women diagnosed with type 2 DM who were registered in primary care clinics in King Khalid University Sexual medicine in saudi arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, participated by filling out questionnaires.
Participation in this study was completely voluntary and was done anonymously.
The participants were told that they could quit completing the questionnaire at any time. Informed consent was provided with the questionnaire, and returning the questionnaire was voluntary.
The participants were not promised to be given a reward after completing the questionnaire. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire in the period of January to the end of May after selected in convenience procedure. Questionnaires with coded envelopes were given to the participants to encourage them to express their feelings honestly and to maintain their privacy. The inclusion criteria were as follows: Saudi patient, 25 years of age or older, married, diagnosed with type 2 DM, and followed up in our clinics for at least
Sexual medicine in saudi arabia year to check previous blood work.
The exclusion criteria were chronic renal failure and illiterate people because the patients had to answer questions "Sexual medicine in saudi arabia" a sensitive issue by themselves.
The patients provided the following demographic information: The questionnaire included items on the duration of DM, the coexistence of other medical conditions hypertension, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, and psychological disorderand DM medication. Other conditions, such as regular exercise, diet, and smoking, were recorded. The medical records and the pharmacy system were used to verify coexisting medical conditions and medication. By dividing the weight in kilograms kg by the squared height in meters m 2the body mass index BMI was calculated.
Thus, the patients were grouped into the following categories: The patients were grouped into three according to their HbA1c: SD was measured using a standard questionnaire. The Female Sexual Function Index FSFI consists of 19 questions grouped into six domains that assess desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain during sexual intercourse. A pilot study was conducted to ensure that Sexual medicine in saudi arabia participants completely understood the questions.
Some words in some of the items were changed because of cultural issues, e.
The number of subjects was estimated on the basis of the mean of SD prevalence among type 2 DM in various studies, degree of precision 0.
Fisher exact test was used when the conditions of the X 2 test were not met. The odds ratio for individual factors was obtained as a measure of the correlation with SD.
To evaluate the independent effect of every factor after controlling for potential confounders, substantial factors were exposed to a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the study period, Saudi women diagnosed with type 2 DM filled out the questionnaire. The relation of SD to the demographic characteristics of the study sample is presented in Table-I. No clear association was found in the occupation factor, but the education factor was different.
In Sexual medicine in saudi arabia obesity factor, The prevalence of SD among Saudi women having type 2 diabetes was In patients who used insulin alone or oral antidiabetic drugs, 7.
Distribution of the "Sexual medicine in saudi arabia" population according to medication and Sexual Dysfunction SD. In the univariate analysis, an association was found in examining one factor at a time Table-III.
Moreover, as age increased, the odds ratio OR also increased. In consideration of normal weight as the reference OR of 1overweight had OR of 1. The relation is different in glycemic control HbA1c. Prevalence of SD was the lowest Duration of 5—10 years had OR of 1.
Co-morbid disease was not found to be significantly associated with sexual dysfunction, e. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that
Sexual medicine in saudi arabia odds ratio for the factors remained significant. The results regarding age were not significant OR: However, the duration of DM remained significant OR: The prevalence of SD among the Saudi women with type 2 diabetes was The differences in prevalence rates in previous studies could be attributed to the following factors: Two more factors also lead to different prevalence rates: First, the different cut-off values in studies using the same scale e.
Second, the methods used to ensure privacy as the subjects were asked to discuss sensitive issues e. No association was found between glycemic control and the prevalence of SD in our study similar to the studies of Esposito et al.
Also, El-Sakka et al.
That association was between the number of patients with low level of total testerone and poor control DM, and that patients with low level of testerone were two times more Sexual medicine in saudi arabia to have severe ED. A significant associations between control of DM and normal level of total testerone at 3- and 6- month follow up visits was showed in other study.
Age factor had a significant association with the prevalence of SD. However, higher age groups experienced elevated rates of SD in Ziaei-Rad et al. However, some studies e. In the obesity factor, a gradual increase in SD by weight was found, but it was not statistically significant similar to Elyasi et al. The strengths of this study are the use of a validated measure of SD, a cut-off level of FSFI score accepted in the cross-validation study 16and a relatively "Sexual medicine in saudi arabia" number of subjects investigated.
First our study design is cross sectional which is not the best design to test the association between the SD among patients with diabetes and glycemic control. Second, our sample size was convenience sample and taken from a single institute which make the generalizability difficult.
Lastly, The lack of non-diabetic control group to compare with was one of the limitations for this study that must overcome in future studies. SD prevalence was high in Saudi women having type 2 diabetes. Moreover, a correlation was found between SD prevalence and age, but no correlation was found between SD and glycemic control.
A gradual increase in SD by weight was observed, but it was not statistically significant. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first study on the prevalence of SD among Saudi women patients with type 2 DM. We would like to express "Sexual medicine in saudi arabia" gratitude and appreciation to Dr.
Ahmad Alhojailan from the Department of English Language and Translation, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia, for his comments and suggestions to improve the quality of the manuscript. We would also like to thank all the medical staff who helped us in collecting the responses from the patients. Authors have no conflict of interests, and the work was not supported or by any drug company.
Design of the study, coordinated all work related to the study, performed analysis and manuscript writing. Design of the study, performed analysis and critically reviewed the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Pak J Med Sci. AlMogbel1 Hussein S.