Freud proposed that development in childhood takes place in a series of fixed psychosexual stages: These are called psychosexual stages because each stage represents the fixation of libido roughly translated as sexual drives or instincts on a different area of the body. As a person grows physically certain areas of their body become important as sources of potential frustration erogenous zonespleasure or both.
Freud believed that life was built round tension and pleasure. Freud also believed that all tension was due to the build-up of libido sexual energy and that all pleasure came from its discharge. In describing human personality development as psychosexual Freud meant to convey that what develops is the way in which sexual energy accumulates and is discharged as we mature biologically.
NB Freud used the term 'sexual' in a very general way to mean all pleasurable actions and thoughts. Freud stressed that the first five years of life are crucial to the formation of adult personality.
The id must be controlled in order to satisfy social demands; this sets up a conflict between frustrated wishes and social norms.
The ego and superego develop in order to exercise this control and direct Freuds 5 psycho sexual stages need for gratification into socially acceptable channels. Gratification centers in different areas of the body at different stages of growth, making the conflict at each stage psychosexual.
Each of the psychosexual stages is associated with a particular conflict that must be resolved before the individual can successfully advance to the next stage. To explain this Freud suggested the analogy of military troops on the march.
As the troops advance, they are met by opposition or conflict. If they are highly successful in winning the battle resolving the conflictthen most of the troops libido will be able to move on to the next battle stage. But the greater the difficulty encountered at any particular point, the greater the need for troops to remain behind to fight and thus the fewer that will be able to go on to the next confrontation.
Some people do not seem to be able to leave one stage and proceed Freuds 5 psycho sexual stages to the next. One reason for this may be that the needs of the developing individual at any particular stage may not have been adequately met in which case there is frustration.
Both frustration and overindulgence or any combination of the two may lead to what psychoanalysts call fixation at a particular psychosexual stage. Fixation refers to the theoretical notion that a portion of the individual's libido has been permanently 'invested' "Freuds 5 psycho sexual stages" a particular stage of his development.
It is assumed that some libido is permanently invested in each psychosexual stage and thus each person will behave in some ways that are characteristic of infancy, or early childhood. You can remember the order of these stages by using the mnemonic: In the first stage of personality development, the libido is centered in a baby's mouth. It gets much satisfaction from putting all sorts of things in its mouth to satisfy the libido, and thus its id demands.
Which at this stage in life are oral, or mouth orientated, such as sucking, biting, and breastfeeding. Freud said oral stimulation could lead to an oral fixation in later life. We see oral personalities all around us such as smokers, nail-biters, finger-chewers, and thumb suckers.
Oral personalities engage in such oral behaviors, particularly when under stress.
The libido now becomes focused on the anus, and the child derives great pleasure from defecating. The child is now fully aware that they are a person in their own right and that their wishes can bring them into conflict with the demands of the outside world i. Freud believed that this type of conflict tends to come to a head in potty training, in which adults impose restrictions on when and where the child can defecate.
The nature of this first conflict with authority can determine the child's future relationship with all forms of authority. Early or harsh potty training can lead to the child becoming an anal-retentive personality who hates mess, is obsessively tidy, Freuds 5 psycho sexual stages and respectful of authority. They can be stubborn and tight-fisted with their cash and possessions.